When I’m building a terrarium, I like to consider the lush world of Avatar’s Pandora.
A vibrant, living landscape.
To get this effect in a terrarium, we’re going to need more than a handful of plants. We need the variety of textures and densities in the flora too – and that’s where terrarium moss comes in.
It may not seem like the most glamorous terrarium plant, but it’s the one that makes a terrarium shine.
Plus, moss has lots of great benefits beyond how it looks. Absorbing toxins and retaining humidity to name just a few!
This guide is all about the best mosses for terrariums, how to care for moss, and how to best use moss for maximum visual effect.
Let’s get stuck in.
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What is a Moss (and Why Use it in a Terrarium)?
It might not look it, but moss is still a type of plant.
They’re a non-vascular type known as a bryophyte. This means they don’t have vessels for transporting water like other plants, and basically why they appear as a simple grassy mound.
No roots, no problem!
To grow without roots, they just like high humidity and consistent moisture – which makes them great for closed terrariums. They even help to stabilize humidity themselves, so your other tropical plants will love them.
Moss comes with two distinct advantages:
- It won’t compete with your other plants
- You can place it anywhere in your terrarium!
Just like in nature, moss grows anywhere and everywhere. Moss loves to grow on hard surfaces like rocks, logs ,and trees.
Which means they’re perfect for filling out your terrarium. You can easily attach a variety of mosses to rock and wood hardscape items for a truly natural effect.
If you’re wanting to go all out with moss, you can do an entire build with them! That’s called a mossarium.
What is the Best Moss for Terrariums?
There are literally thousands of different kinds of moss. Exciting I know.
They’re all suited to slightly different environments. Most like it hotter and wetter, but some are also hardier than others.
Moss is often characterized into two types depending on its growth pattern: Acrocarpous or Pleurocarpous.
Acrocarpous grows in clumps whereas Pleurocarpous grows in sheets. Good to know which is which when you’re filling out your terrarium.
Clumpy moss has lots of shape and texture, so it’s particularly good at creating a dynamic landscape.
Sheet moss, on the other hand, is best for simply covering an area with a natural moss carpet. Though it does come in a variety of textures and growth patterns.
Naturally, the best moss for a closed terrarium will be one suited to high humidities, but it’s important to note that there is no single “best moss for terrariums” (though I do have my favorites).
Okay, it’s Cushion Moss and Mood Moss – there I said it!
They’re both equally vibrant and reliable mosses, but more on these in a second.
That said, they’re far from the only options. Your ideal moss is going to depend entirely on the particulars of your terrarium, but that doesn’t mean you have to whittle down the 12,000-strong list to find some good candidates.
I’ve done that for you…
Clumpy Mosses (Acrocarpous)
- Cushion Moss/Bun Moss (Leucobryum glaucum) are wonderful compact mounds of moss that I absolutely love to work with! It’s so much fun to sculpt and display, and it truly thrives in closed terrarium conditions – See on Etsy
- Mood Moss (Dicranum scoparium) is another popular option for terrariums. It grows in dense clumps, but it has lush, wavy leaves that look like windswept grasslands – See on Etsy
Carpeting Mosses (Pleurocarpous)
- Sheet Moss (Hypnum curvifolium) as the name implies, likes to grow wide and cover areas like a sheet. It’s a relatively low-growing tropical moss and it’s probably the most popular/readily available carpeting moss used in terrariums – See on Etsy
- Fern Moss (Thuidium delicatulum) brings lots of texture to a terrarium with its long fern-like leaves – See on Etsy
- Sphagnum Moss doesn’t quite fit into the list above, but it’s a mainstay in modern terrariums (see why in our sphagnum moss guide). Commonly used to grow other terrarium plants and mosses on top of, it’s a versatile moss, to say the least – See on Etsy
- Java Moss (Taxiphyllum barbieri) is equally happy on land and water (making it a great paludarium moss/vivarium moss). However, it really shines when planted epiphytically on rocks and wood! – See on Etsy
Moss can be surprisingly hardy stuff, so feel free to experiment with different types.
I’m certain many of the 11,994 other mosses would be great for a terrarium.
Check out our Terrarium Plants Index to browse more great mosses, or see our Essential Guide to Tropical Terrariums for the full breakdown of how to choose and use moss in a project.
How to Grow Moss in a Terrarium
Moss is fantastic for adding texture and color to a terrarium.
Carpeting mosses are great for covering the soil layer and giving that important natural woodland look.
Start by positioning a few sheets around the base of the terrarium, gently placing them on top of the soil. It can be helpful to press them into the substrate just a little to ensure the rhizoids (root-like connecting strands) can reach.
The rounder ‘clumpy’ mosses are great for softening up areas where I can’t fit a plant in, and for general use.
After adding moss to a terrarium, the first 3 weeks are a critical acclimatization period. During this time it’s important to make sure any moss is kept hydrated throughout to give it the best chance to successfully adapt.
Though, there’s no need to stick to ground level. Moss is not afraid of heights, and can often be found growing on cliffs and trees.
If you want to get extra creative with moss positioning, you can use superglue (don’t worry, it’s genuinely safe for plants) or tie it with fishing line to attach moss to your terrarium elements. I usually use Java Moss in terrariums where I’ll be 3D planting.
Personally, I love the look of exotic rocks and large terrarium wood statement pieces adorned with different levels of moss.
Thanks to the fact they don’t have roots, their simple structure allows for a lot of flexibility. They’ll only need a small amount of substrate so you can explore shallow containers, or you can make use of panels to create a moss wall!
👉 Here’s our step-by-step guide to How to Make a Moss Terrarium.
Where to Find Terrarium Moss for Sale
So you’ve decided which types of moss you want for your terrarium, now you need to get some.
Here’s where to buy moss for terrariums.
- Etsy has a wide variety of live moss for sale.
- Amazon stocks some varieties of frog moss, reptile moss, and sphagnum moss.
- Aquarium stores stock a variety of semi-aquatic species that can be used in terrariums too.
- Floristry shops often sell pincushion moss.
👉 See our Live Moss Buying Guide for more help.
Propagating Moss for Terrariums
I end up using quite a lot of moss, so it’s much more economical for me to propagate it myself.
Whenever I buy a new type of moss, I’ll get a little bit more than I need and pop the excess in a container to grow.
Honestly, learning how to grow moss indoors really isn’t too difficult.
I like to make rudimentary terrariums out of plastic tubs. They don’t need to be deep (no roots remember) so shallow and flat are best. The more surface area for moss, the better.
You don’t need any fancy moss substrate either, I tend to just use cheaper potting soil here.
My first tub always has a thick carpet of moss, and that’s where I’ll be taking most of my moss. The other I section out evenly to encourage it to grow into a proper carpet.
Collecting Moss from the Wild
You might be thinking, can i use moss from my yard in a terrarium?
Well, harvesting wild moss certainly seems like a fun way to get chemical-free, healthy moss.
Just remember, if you live in a temperate area, you’re going to find temperate moss i.e. moss that prefers lower temperatures.
So, if you’re making a tropical terrarium, your hand-picked frosty Siberian moss might not like it…
For the best chance of success, try to match the climate from your source with that of the terrarium you’re looking to build. Though, honestly, feel free to experiment. Moss is surprisingly hardy stuff, and many mosses can acclimate to different terrarium conditions.
Knowing how to clean moss for terrariums is more important with wild moss too. At the very least you’ll want to soak the moss to remove any dirt particles (and it helps to hydrate the moss too).
Moss Care Tips
Most terrarium moss is easy to take care of. It’s generally pretty hardy stuff that generally requires very little input. If you’ve got a closed terrarium with high humidity and plenty of moisture, it’s probably going to only need a light watering once a month or so.
Watering moss should be done as evenly as possible. Remember, most moss loves moisture but doesn’t like to be sat in pools of water (except for aquatic mosses like Java Moss). It’s also sensitive to chemicals like chlorine – so be sure to use distilled water or rainwater.
If you consider where you’d typically find moss in the wild, growing on rocks and trees (on the North side if childhood wilderness tips are to be believed) it’s usually in the shade. Meaning moss typically prefers indirect, diffused natural light – which is perfect, because tropical terrariums plants are exactly the same, so moss is going to thrive in just about every terrarium setup.
Moss isn’t known for its speedy proliferation. Some definitely grow faster than others, but you don’t have to worry about them taking over your terrarium if you leave it unchecked for a couple of weeks. From the day you make your terrarium/add your moss, you can expect it to take a few weeks to settle and start to grow.
Moss can often look sleek and uniform, but just like any other plant, it can grow unevenly. Martha Stewart recommends pruning when moss starts looking “a little shabby,” trimming them down to promote a fuller regrowth. Though if you’ve got entire sections of moss getting overgrown, feel free to remove them and replace them with fresh material.
Light and water, that’s about it. Moss doesn’t absorb nutrients from roots, but rather through its leaves. So as long as moss is exposed to moisture and/or the air, it’ll have everything it needs.
Over to You
Do you use moss in your terrariums too? If you use any types not listed in this article, I’d love to hear them in the comments below!